• Coasts & Deltas

  • Communities

  • Water Resources

LCA/CLEAR Framework Overview

Twilley, R.R. and J. Barras. 2003. Formulation of the CLEAR LCA Model, Chapter 2. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Twilley, R.R., B.R. Couvillion, I. Hossain, C. Kaiser, A.B. Owens, G.D. Steyer and J.M. Visser. 2008. Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Program: the role of ecosystem forecasting in evaluating restoration planning in the Mississippi River deltaic plain. American Fisheries Society Symposium Proceedings entitled “Mitigating Impacts of Natural Hazards on Fishery Ecosystems,” 64:29–46.



Hydrodynamics and Water Quality

McCorquodale, J.A. and I. Georgiou. 2003. Hydrodynamic Models of Subprovince 1, Chapter 3. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Mashriqui, H.S. and G.P. Kemp. 2003. Hydrodynamic Models of Subprovince 2, Chapter 4. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Reyes, E., G.P. Kemp, J.Y. Ko, J.W. Day and V. Aravamuthan. 2003. Hydrodynamic Models of Subprovince 3, Chapter 5. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Meselhe, E. 2003. Hydrodynamic Models of Subprovince 4, Chapter 6. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Nuttle, W. 2003. LCA Box Model Calculations, Chapter 7. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Rivera-Monroy, V.H., K. Teague, E.M. Swenson, J. Barko, M.S. Dortch, D. Justic, J.A. McCorquodale, J.N. Nestler and R.R. Twilley. 2003. Water Quality Module, Chapter 11. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

McCorquodale, A., H. Mashriqui, D.J. Reed, E. Reyes, J. Day, I. Georgiou, J.M. Visser, G.P. Kemp, V. Stutts, J. Foret, E. Swenson, G.D. Steyer, E. Meselhe and C. Willson. 2004. Effects of River Diversion Projects Using a Pulsing Scenario of Proposed Alternatives Based on Both Simulation and Box Modeling Approaches. Chapter 18. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume II: Tasks 9-15. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Aravamuthan, V. 2006. Gridded Wind Data for Coastal Louisiana and Mississippi, Chapter 1A. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume III: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-04-07.

McCorquodale, J.A. and I. Georgiou. 2006. Three Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling of Barataria Estuary, Chapter 3. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume III: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-04-07.

Meselhe, E.A, J.A. McCorquodale, C. Chen, J. Stronach, E. Habib and I.Y. Georgiou. 2006. River Model Development, Chapter 4. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume III: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-04-07.

Justic, D., W. Nuttle, E. Swenson, V.H. Rivera-Monroy and A. Das. 2006. Box Model / Water Quality Development, Chapter 5. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume III: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-04-07.

Aravamuthan, V. 2008. A Two Dimensional Vertically Integrated Hydrodynamic and Transport Model for Long Time Scale Simulations, Chapter 1. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment & Restoration (CLEAR) Program: A tool to support coastal restoration. Volume IV. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-06-02.

Nuttle W. and E. Habib. 2008. Response of Salinity in Barataria Basin to Alternative 3 Freshwater Diversions, Chapter 2. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment & Restoration (CLEAR) Program: A tool to support coastal restoration. Volume IV. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-06-02.

A. McCorquodale, I. Georgiou, G. Retana and R. Roblin. 2008. Assessment of Integrated Hydrodynamic and Transport for Long-term Predictions: FVCOM & Water Quality Modeling of the Pontchartrain Estuary including Subprovinces 1 and 5, Chapter 11. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment & Restoration (CLEAR) Program: A tool to support coastal restoration. Volume IV. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-06-02.



Uncertainty

Visser, J.M., G.D. Steyer and R.R. Twilley. 2003. Model Uncertainty and Limitations, Chapter 13. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Steyer, G.D., J.M. Visser and R.R. Twilley. 2003. Model Evaluation, Chapter 14. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Habib, E., V.H. Rivera-Monroy, J.M. Visser, G.D. Steyer, R.R. Twilley, E. Swenson, K.A. Rose, D. Justic, W. Nuttle and E. Hyfield. 2004. Uncertainty Analysis of the CLEAR Ecosystem Model: Issues, Needs, and Future Directions, Chapter 17. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume II: Tasks 9-15. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Habib, E., V.H. Rivera-Monroy, W. Nuttle, J. Wang, E.A. Meselhe, S. Gautam, E.B. Moser and C. Jetsch. 2006. An Uncertainty Analysis Framework for the CLEAR Ecosystem Model: Using Barataria Basin as the Test Domain and Skill Assessment, Chapter 6. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume III: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-04-07.

E. Habib, W.K. Nuttle, V.H. Rivera-Monroy and N. Nasrollahi. 2008. An Uncertainty Analysis framework for the CLEAR Ecosystem Model: Using Subprovince 1 as Test Domain and Skill assessment, Chapter 12. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment & Restoration (CLEAR) Program: A tool to support coastal restoration. Volume IV. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-06-02.

Habib, E., B.F. Larson, W.K. Nuttle, V.H. Rivera-Monroy, B.R. Nelson, E.A. Meselhe and R.R. Twilley. 2008. Effect of rainfall spatial variability and sampling on salinity prediction in an estuarine system. Journal of Hydrology 350: 56–67.

Habib E., W.K. Nuttle, V.H. Rivera-Monroy, S. Gautam, J. Wang, E. Meselhe and R.R. Twilley. 2007. Assessing Effects of Data Limitations on Salinity Forecasting in Barataria Basin, Louisiana, with a Bayesian Analysis. Journal of Coastal Research 23(3): 749–763



Landscape Change

Visser, J.M., J. Callaway, D.J. Reed, G.D. Steyer, J. Suhayda and E. Swenson. 2003. Wetland Nourishment Module, Chapter 8. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Kemp, G.P., D.J. Reed, H. Mashriqui, W. McAnally, E. Reyes, C. Sasser, J. Suhayda, J. Visser, J. Wells and C. Willson. 2004. Predicting Land Building in the Mississippi Delta Plain: Knowledge and Uncertainty, Chapter 20. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume II: Tasks 9-15. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Visser, J.M., G.P. Kemp and H. Mashriqui. 2006. CELSS Model Development, Chapter 2A. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume III: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-04-07.

Visser, J.M., C. Kaiser, I. Hossain, B.R. Couvillion and A.B. Owens. 2008. Forecasting 50-Years of Landscape Change in Coastal Louisiana: No Increased Action & Preliminary Draft Master Plan, Chapter 3. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment & Restoration (CLEAR) Program: A tool to support coastal restoration. Volume IV. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-06-02.

Kim, W., D. Mohrig, R. Twilley, C. Paola and G. Parker. 2008. Land Building in the Delta of the Mississippi River: Is it Feasible?, Chapter 10. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment & Restoration (CLEAR) Program: A tool to support coastal restoration. Volume IV. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-06-02.



Habitat Switching (Vegetation)

Visser, J.M., G.D. Steyer, G.P. Shaffer, S.S. Höppner, M.W. Hester, E. Reyes, P. Keddy, I.A. Mendelssohn, C.E. Sasser and C. Swarzenski. 2003. Habitat Switching Module, Chapter 9. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Visser, J.M., C. Kaiser and A.B. Owens. 2008. Forecasting 50-years of Habitat Switching in Coastal Louisiana: No Increased Action & Preliminary Draft Master Plan, Chapter 4. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment & Restoration (CLEAR) Program: A tool to support coastal restoration. Volume IV. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-06-02.



Habitat Use (Fauna)

Foret, J.D., J.N. Nyman, L.P. Rozas, K.H. Rose, J.H. Cowan and D. Baltz. 2003. Habitat Use Module, Chapter 10. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Walters, C., V. Christensen, W. Walters and K. Rose. 2008. Representation of multi-stanza life histories in Ecospace models for spatial organization of ecosystem trophic interaction patterns, Chapter 9. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment & Restoration (CLEAR) Program: A tool to support coastal restoration. Volume IV. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-06-02.



Data Integration

Meselhe, E.A., J.A. Nyman. J. Foret, E. Swenson, D. Clark, C. Swarzenski, E. Habib, J.A. McCorquodale and K. Keiashy. 2004. Literature Review of Available Data and Previous Studies in Region 4: A Base to Perform Comprehensive Water and Sediment Budgets, Chapter 19. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume II: Tasks 9-15. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Reyes, E. 2005. Geographical Data Acquisition and Base Map Development of Historical Barataria Basin, Chapter 2B. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume III: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-04-07.

Aravamuthan, V. 2006. A Rational for a Centralized Data Repository for Modeling, Chapter 1B. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume III: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-04-07.

Kaiser, C. 2008. Visualization of Model Output: CLEAR MapServer & Google Maps API, Chapter 6. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment & Restoration (CLEAR) Program: A tool to support coastal restoration. Volume IV. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-06-02.



Conceptual Models

Twilley, R.R. 2003. Conceptual Ecological Models for Planning and Evaluation of LCA Restoration Program, Chapter 1. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Nuttle, W.K, F.H. Sklar, A.B. Owens, M. Inoue, D. Justic, W. Kim, E. Melancon, J. Pahl, D. Reed, K. Rose, M. Schexnayder, G. Steyer, J. Visser and R. Twilley. 2008. Conceptual Ecological Model for River Diversions into Barataria Basin, Louisiana, Chapter 7. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment & Restoration (CLEAR) Program: A tool to support coastal restoration. Volume IV. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-06-02.

Newsletters
2005 - Reducing flood damage in coastal Louisiana: communities, culture, & commerce

2006 – Enhancing landscape integrity in coastal Louisiana: water, sediment, & ecosystems

2007 – Restore vs. Retreat: securing ecosystem services provided by coastal Louisiana


 


Adaptive Management

Steyer, G.D., J.M. Visser, B. Good, J.M. Nestler, W. Nuttle, D.J. Reed, V. Rivera-Monroy, K.A. Rose and R.R. Twilley. 2004. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management: A Draft Framework, Chapter 22. In, R.R. Twilley. (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume II: Tasks 9-15. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Light S.S. 2008. Technical and Scientific Challenges for Responding to Large-Scale Ecological Restoration, Chapter 8. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment & Restoration (CLEAR) Program: A tool to support coastal restoration. Volume IV. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-06-02.



Risk Assessment

Bartell, S., D. Braud, S. Farber, R. Gramling, P. Kemp, S. Laska, L. Leonard, R. Hagelman, B. Maestri, W. Nuttle, D. Reed, G. Stone, V. Stutts and G. Wooddell. 2004. The Effect Coastal Restoration on Flood Risk in Terrebonne Parish, Chapter 21. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume II: Tasks 9-15. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Mashriqui, H.S., J.N. Suhayda and B.R. Couvillion. 2008. Computation of Storm Surge using Two 50 Year Future Projections of the Coastal Louisiana Landscape, Chapter 5. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment & Restoration (CLEAR) Program: A tool to support coastal restoration. Volume IV. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-06-02.



Benefits

Hawes, S., D. Reed, M. Carloss, B. Clairain, J. Ettinger, C. Grouchy, B. Haase, D. Llewellyn, K. Roy, C. Sasser and G. Steyer. 2003. LCA Benefits Assessment Protocols, Chapter 12. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume I: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

Reed, D.J., K. Orth, J. Smyth, R. Caffey. 2006. Concepts for Future Decision Making and Benefits Analysis for Louisiana Coastal Restoration, Chapter 8. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume III: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-04-07.



Monitoring

Swenson, E.M. and C.M. Swarzenski. 2004. Open Water Monitoring to Support Coastal Restoration, Chapter 16. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume II: Tasks 9-15. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2511-02-24.

 Steyer, G.D., B.R. Couvillion and A.B. Owens. 2006. Data Collection Network to Support Ecosystem Forecasting for the Barataria-Basin – Mississippi River Domain, Chapter 7. In, R.R. Twilley (ed.), Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) Model of Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Comprehensive Ecosystem Restoration Plan. Volume III: Tasks 1-8. Final Report to Department of Natural Resources, Coastal Restoration Division, Baton Rouge, LA. Contract No. 2512-04-07.

Steyer, G.D., A.B. Owens and B.R. Couvillion. 2006. Data collection network to support ecosystem forecasting for the Barataria Basin – Mississippi River domain. Published in Coastal Environment and Water Quality (ed. by Y. J. Xu & V. P. Singh), 431-442. Water Resources Publications, LLC, Highlands Ranch, CO 80163-0026, USA